Day 1 :
Chair of Israeli Emergency Medicine
Keynote: Mass Causality & Trauma Incidents
Time : 09:30 am - 10:15 am
Dr. Eran Tal-Or was the Chair of Israeli Emergency Medicine & also in the Current Position of Professor at Haifa University.
With the outbreak of worldwide terrorism medical forces must be prepared to deal with the victims of mass casualty and the nature of the injury. Treatment begins in the field by the pre-hospital forces and continues in the hospitals. These activities require meticulous planning by the pre-hospital services and the hospitals themselves. It is necessary to train the systems to be ready for the moment when they will be activated.
In the State of Israel, preparation for mass casualty incidence is a national mission, we combine the protocols of the pre-hospital forces and the organization and activities of the hospitals during a terror attack. For years we train the forces at the national level and we have seen a remarkable improvement in our adeptness in dealing with the many terror incidents in Israel. My lecture will encompass our methods of training our medical forces, an in-depth discussion of the unique aspect of terror injury, and how we improved our performance as medical professionals in the era of rampant terrorism.
Professor, Yokohama University of Pharmacy, Japan
Hiroshi Ohrui received the Ph.D. degree (1971) from The University of Tokyo. He Joined RIKEN (1966) and moved to Tokyo University (1981). He moved to Yokohama University of Pharmacy (2006). He worked for Dr. J. J. Fox at Sloan- Kettering Institute for Cancer Research (1972-1973) and Dr. J. G. Moffatt at Syntex Research (1973-1974). He received several awards including Inoue Prize for Science (2001), Japan Prize for Agricultural Sciences (2004), The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Award (2004), and Japan Academy Prize (2010). His research interests cover organic synthesis, chemical biology, and chiral discrimination.
4’-C-Ethnyl-2-fluoro-2’-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) has attracted much attention due to its extremely excellent anti-HIV activity (1. prevent the emergence of resistant HIV mutants, 2. over 400 times more active than AZT and several orders of magnitude more active than the other clinical reverse-transcriptase inhibitor 2’, 3’-dideoxynucleoside drugs, 3.very low toxic 4. long-acting 5. could be used for prophylaxis, and so on). EFdA is now under clinical investigation as MK-8591 by Merck & Co.
In my talk, my general idea for the development of anti-viral nucleoside-based on the mutation of viruses and the development of EFdA, especially the design of it, will be presented and discussed.
For the design of the modified nucleoside which could solve the problems, the clinical drugs have (1.Emergence of drug-resistant HIV-mutants. 2. Adverse effects of drugs. 3. Necessary to take plenty amount of drugs) I have proposed the following working hypotheses to solve the problems. They are (1) the way to prevent the emergence of resistant HIV mutants, (2) the way to decrease the toxicity of modified nucleosides, (3) the way to provide the nucleoside with the stability to both enzymatic and acidic hydrolysis of nucleobase for long acting.
4’-C-substituted-2’-deoxynucleoside was designed to meet the hypotheses (1), (3) and the two-site-modification was conducted to meet the hypothesis (2).
The details of the hypotheses and the reason for the 4’-C-substitution will be discussed.
To prevent the deamination of the adenine base, fluorine atom was introduced at the 2-position of adenine base.
Finally, EFdA which is modified at the two position of the physiologic 2’-deoxyadenosine and has extremely excellent anti-HIV properties was successfully developed.